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Legal Reference

Legal Citations
Materials about how to put your legal research into proper legal citation format. Matierials about the importance of the citation format and citation reform to enhance usability and accessibility of the law itself.

Resources in this category:
   Do We Believe in Lowering Accessibility Barriers to Case Law? If So, It's Time to Put Citation Reform on the Minnesota Agenda by Pritchard, LaVern A. (September 1, 2006) (Minnesota Association of Law Libraries / University of Illinois Library Archives)
"We have laws about removing architectural barriers to accessibility.

But we don't yet seem to have any plans in Minnesota for removing artificial barriers to accessibility of much of Minnesota law - appellate decisions from the Minnesota Supreme Court and Court of Appeals.

How those decisions are identified and published has ripple effects across the entire legal community as well as for citizen access to the law itself."

Ed. note: The article is at pp. 6-8 of this newsletter.

   Citeus Legalus
The service describes itself as:"The legal citation generator for lazy law students."
   Citing Legally (Peter W. Martin)
"The aim will be to draw attention to important differences in practice among jurisdictions and distinctive approaches - from the commendable to the lamentable."
   Environmentally-Friendly Citations by Ivan Mokanov (March 1, 2010) (VoxPopuLII)
"Today, all 50 Canadian courts follow the neutral citation standard."
   Illinois Supreme Court Announces New Public Domain Citation System, Ending Era of Printed Volumes (May 31, 2011) (Illinois Supreme Court)
"The Illinois Supreme Court announced Tuesday a new way of officially citing its cases and those of the Illinois Appellate Court. This new method will eliminate the need to contractually publish and purchase the official opinions in bound volumes. It will save Illinois taxpayers hundreds of thousands of dollars a year.

Illinois will join about a dozen other states who already use the new method of case citation. The Supreme Court promulgated the changes in amendments filed Tuesday to Supreme Court Rule 6 and Rule 23."


... The new method of citation goes into effect July 1, 2011. ...


In Illinois, Supreme Court and Appellate Court opinions have been available on the judiciary's web site since 1996, but the requirement that official citation be made to printed reporters has prevented the direct citation of those opinions. ...

These changes direct the Illinois Supreme Court and the Illinois Appellate Court to assign at the time of filing a public-domain case designator number, as well as internal paragraph numbers to all opinions and Rule 23 orders filed after July 1, 2011."

   Into the Public Domain: Making the Transition to Illinois' New Citation Rules by Anne K. Knight (December 1, 2011) (Journal of the DuPage County Bar Association)
   Introduction to Basic Legal Citation by Peter W. Martin (Cornell Legal Information Institute)
1993 - present. Revised annually.
   Map of U.S. States Adopting Vendor-Neutral Citation Rules (American Association of Law Libraries)
   Neutral Citation, Court Web Sites, and Access to Authoritative Case Law by Martin, Peter M. (March 1, 2007) (Law Library Journal)
36 pages.
   Report of the Committee on Opinions Citation by Conference of Chief Justices Opinions Citation Committee (January 1, 1999) (Conference of Chief Justices)
"With information technology such as electronic bulletin boards, CD-ROMs and the Internet so readily available and widely used, there is growing interest among courts in a citation form that is both medium neutral and vendor neutral. Such a neutral citation form is known as a universal citation form. The purpose of this memorandum is to highlight the issues a supreme court faces in considering a universal citation form and official electronic opinions and to offer some suggestions and options. Whether a Supreme Court should adopt such a system is outside the scope of this report." 11 pages.
   Universal Citation (American Bar Association Legal Technology Resource Center)
Universal citation is a format designed to supplement or replace older, print-oriented, proprietary legal citation formats.
   Universal Citation and the American Association of Law Libraries: A White Paper (August 1, 2011) (Law Library Journal)
Cite as: 103 Law Lib. J. (2011-22). 27 pages.
   Universal Citation: The Fullest Possible Dissemination of Judgments by Silversmith, Jol (April 1, 1997) (Silversmith, Jol)
"Originally written as part of a team project on the future of online legal publishing for an interdisciplinary Harvard University class on Business and the Internet."
"Our aim is to provide the organizational infrastructure needed to facilitate the adoption and use of a uniform set of media and vendor neutral citations that can be used for all American court decisions."

See also:
  • Legal Publishing and Law Librarianship
  • Updating Legal Authorities
  • Similar resources in our Wisconsin Legal Reference Library
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